Thursday, November 19, 2009

Exercise Reverses Aging

Went to a very interesting grand rounds where Dr. Nair discussed some of the research from his lab. The focus of the lab is to assess the effects of aging and whether it is reversible. They found that most proteins seem to have different isoforms and they have developed a new technique (a 2D gel) to differentiate these. Using labeling techniques they showed that these isoforms are age related in that a protein changes with time. They felt these were post-translational changes and maybe due to oxidative damage resulting in poorer function.
They studied physically active individuals and when compared to sedentary subjects, noted that they had significantly less "damaged/aged" muscle.

OBJECTIVE— We determined whether reduced insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and other age-related dysfunctions are inevitable consequences of aging or secondary to physical inactivity.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— Insulin sensitivity was measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and ATP production in mitochondria isolated from vastus lateralis biopsies of 42 healthy sedentary and endurance-trained young (18–30 years old) and older (59–76 years old) subjects. Expression of proteins involved in fuel metabolism was measured by mass spectrometry. Citrate synthase activity, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) abundance, and expression of nuclear-encoded transcription factors for mitochondrial biogenesis were measured. SIRT3, a mitochondrial sirtuin linked to lifespan-enhancing effects of caloric restriction, was measured by immunoblot.

RESULTS— Insulin-induced glucose disposal and suppression of endogenous glucose production were higher in the trained young and older subjects, but no age effect was noted. Age-related decline in mitochondrial oxidative capacity was absent in endurance-trained individuals. Although endurance-trained individuals exhibited higher expression of mitochondrial proteins, mtDNA, and mitochondrial transcription factors, there were persisting effects of age. SIRT3 expression was lower with age in sedentary but equally elevated regardless of age in endurance-trained individuals.

CONCLUSIONS— The results demonstrate that reduced insulin sensitivity is likely related to changes in adiposity and to physical inactivity rather than being an inevitable consequence of aging. The results also show that regular endurance exercise partly normalizes age-related mitochondrial dysfunction, although there are persisting effects of age on mtDNA abundance and expression of nuclear transcription factors and mitochondrial protein. Furthermore, exercise may promote longevity through pathways common to effects of caloric restriction.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.