Effects of DPP-4 inhibition on cardiac metabolism and function in mice.
Klinik für Innere Medizin III, Kardiologie, Angiologie und Internistische Intensivmedizin, Universitätsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar, Germany.
Type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of cardiac complications. Inhibitors of dipeptidylpeptidase 4 (DPP-4) are novel drugs for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. The effect of DPP-4 inhibitors on myocardial metabolism has not been studied in detail. In wild-type C57Bl6-mice, 3weeks of treatment with sitagliptin had no effect on body weight and glucose tolerance nor on phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoAcarboxylase (ACC), phosphofructokinase-2 (PFK2) or tuberin-2 (TSC2) in the left ventricular myocardium. However, in 10week old db/db-/- mice, a model of diabetes and obesity, sitagliptin potently reduced plasma glucose rise in peritoneal glucose tolerance tests and reduced weight increase. The myocardium of untreated db/db-/- mice exhibited a marked increase of the phosphorylation of AMPK, ACC, TSC2, expression of p53 and fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) membrane expression. These changes were reduced by DPP-4inhibition. Sitagliptin showed no effect on cardiomyocyte size but prevented myocardial fibrosis in the 10week old db/db-/- mice and reduced expression of TGF-β1, markers of oxidative stress and the accumulation of advanced glycation end products in cardiomyocytes. Working heartanalyses did not show an effect of sitagliptin on parameters of systolic cardiac function. In animals with diabetes and obesity, sitagliptin improved glucose tolerance, reduced weight gain, myocardial fibrosis and oxidative stress. Furthermore the study provides evidence that treatment with sitagliptin decreases elevated myocardial fatty acid uptake and oxidation in the diabetic heart. These observations show beneficial myocardial metabolic effect of DPP-4 inhibition in this mouse model of diabetes and obesity.